Conventional water softeners switch hard water minerals (magnesium, calcium, etc.) for sodium ions via ion exchange. In this process, water softeners need to eliminate excess hardness materials within the resin. They flush these minerals via regeneration, which usually happens every three to seven days.
For the system to function correctly, it needs a drain line to escort this brine water away from the system. Without a drain line, you might encounter varying issues, such as water overflow or water line issues. So, if you have a conventional water softener, you’ll need a drain line as a solution to these potential problems. Here are a few things to remember as you decide on the best drain type.
Why Does Water Softener Need A Drain?
The drain is an essential part of most water softener systems. Of course, there are a few exceptions to this, as some water filters act as a water softener but don’t require a drain. That said, most water softeners need a drain to work correctly.
A drain hose or line is necessary for the system as it escorts spent water discharged from the system. This enables the system to send water to a drain without causing issues. On top of that, it allows for less maintenance all around, as it keeps the system running smoothly.
Without a drain hose or line, the system will encounter issues with discharge and overflow, potentially leading to water damage in the area of your home where the softener is. The system needs the drain hose to send spent water (brine tank) from the system without problems.
Conventional water softeners utilize ion exchange to replace calcium and magnesium ions (which make hard water) in the water with sodium ions. To continue this process, the system needs to regenerate periodically by flushing extra sodium out of the system.
So, when your system regenerates, you’re left with water that has a high sodium content, plus water with removed calcium and magnesium ions.
If you don’t have a drain on most water softeners (except for filters that act like softeners), the hard water going into the softener would eventually cause water overflow or water line issues. Issues within the water line can arise as a result of spent water trying to re-enter the hard water line.
Where Should A Water Softener Drain Line Be?
A water softener’s drain line shouldn’t be connected directly to the waste system. Instead, it needs to empty into a laundry tray, floor drain, or properly trapped outlet. Generally, it’s best to discharge wastewater into the sewer if possible, but a laundry sink or any other sink will do the trick.
You can also install a trap in the waste line as long as there’s a sufficient air gap or vacuum breaker between the tap and drain line (from the softener). Alternatively, you can use a floor drain, as long as it won’t interfere with foot traffic.
Using a rigid pipe material is essential, as the pipe shouldn’t move because this can reduce the minimum air gap. If you use flexible drain line material, it needs to be tightly secured to avoid movement.
In some cases, the unit might have an overflow drain line for the refrigerant container, which should run to the floor drain and needs to be gravity fed.
What Type Of Drain Does A Water Softener Need?
As you prepare to install your water softener’s drain, there are a few things you should consider to ensure smooth operation. Generally, the best drain line size is a ½-inch polypropylene line, but you can also consult your plumber for the best option for your home.
In addition, you need to consider the type of drain the system needs. The best options for removing backwash water include floor drains, laundry trays, and properly trapped outlets. Before you choose a drain type, check with local laws to ensure there aren’t specific restrictions on the kind of drain you can use.
Most folks choose to drain their water softener into a nearby, conveniently-located floor drain. However, since not all folks have easy access to a floor drain, this might not be an option for you.
If you decide to move forward with a floor drain, ensure you double-check with your local plumbing code. Some areas prohibit this type of drainage, as they feed into the sewage systems, sump pumps, waterways that enter the ground outside, and so on.
These drains are usually utility sinks, laundry tubs, or similar options. When you drain your water softener into a laundry tray, it acts as an air gap, so you don’t need to incorporate an air gap into this part of the system.
This option is valuable and versatile, so if you have the necessary space and time, you might want to consider this as an option.
Properly Trapped Outlet
Alternatively, you can also choose to tie the system directly to an outlet instead of using a drain line. If you go this route, you’ll need an adequately trapped outlet, also known as a P-trap. This option is handy for preventing sewer smells and other unwanted scents from feeding backward in the plumbing.
With this option, you can tie the outlet to a sewer line or create a dry well in your yard with a P-trap. Dry wells for trapped outlets need to be underneath the freeze line (as required by local code) and large enough to accommodate weekly water output.
So, if your system regenerates once a week at 50 gallons of water, you’ll need a 55-gallon drum at the minimum, although larger is better. This ensures the water has plenty of time to leach into the ground between regeneration cycles.
Lastly, you need to send in a soil sample for testing. This step is essential as it’ll tell you whether the discharge will end up in clay soil and how deep the drum needs to be for water to leach into the ground.
How Often Should A Water Softener Drain?
The frequency at which your water softener drains hinges on how much water your household uses. In addition, the hardness of your water and the capacity of the resin tank affects this regeneration period.
That said, on average, most water softeners drain every three days to one week. More efficient water softeners usually regenerate every three days, whereas older systems will need to regenerate multiple times a day. This is because older systems typically have a decreased capacity for spent water, so the system has to regenerate more often.
Frequently Asked Questions (FAQs)
Is It Possible To Drain My Water Softener Outside?
As you weigh the potential drain options for your water softener, you might wonder if draining the system outdoors is feasible. The laws surrounding this question vary from one location to the next, so it depends on what kind of laws are in place in your area.
Some areas permit outdoor draining, while others prohibit this practice. If your area allows this type of drainage, you’ll be unable to grow grass or soil in the drainage spot. This is due to how the drain water affects the soil, as it makes most soils in the U.S. unable to support plant life.
So, if you want to drain the water from your water softener in your backyard and still want to grow grass or plants, it might be better to dig a dry well. This way, you can discharge water in your backyard without affecting your ability to grow plants or grass.
Can I Install A Water Softener Drain Line Myself?
Installing a water softener drain line as a DIY project is doable, providing you have experience in this area. If you are unfamiliar with this type of project, it might be easier and less stressful to outsource the project to a professional.
Some steps of the process can be complex for inexperienced individuals, so it might be best to hire a plumber in this case. If you decide to go this route, expect to pay anywhere from $45 to $150 per hour in labor. Remember, this only accounts for labor, so parts will be extra.
How Much Does It Cost To Have A Water Softener Installed?
On average, professional installation for a water softener system costs approximately $1,500. However, this number can vary based on your particular scenario. Factors affecting the cost may include the size of your house, labor costs, permits, and the area you live.
So, homeowners can pay anywhere from $500 to $6,000 for professional water softener installation.
Can I Install A Water Softener Myself?
Installing a water softener yourself is a doable project. For some homeowners, this might be the better option, as it allows you to work through the task at their own pace without spending additional money on a plumber.
The process is straightforward if you’re replacing an old water softener, as you usually only need to switch the old one out. This process can generally be done in an hour or less, depending on how quickly you work.
On the flip side, if you’re installing a brand new water softener, the process will be more involved, as you’ll need to figure out electrical, draining, and other related requirements. If you’re inexperienced in plumbing projects, you might want to outsource the project to an experienced professional.